Toadstools and Mushrooms
Toadstools and Mushrooms
I have never actually worked out what the diffference is between a toadstool and a mushroom! The label mushroom seems to be associated with a particular family of fungi that are commonly eaten but many toadstools are safe to eat and frequently are. Both have a common structure of a cap on top of a stem (or stype). Some have gills on the underside of the cap, others have pores from where it emits its spores.
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|Species featured in this book||Scientific Name||Title|
|Field Mushroom||Agaricus campestris||Agaricus campestris: the field mushroom|
|Wood Mushroom||Agaricus silvicola||Agaricus silvicola: the wood mushroom|
|Magpie Inkcap||Coprinopsis picacea||Coprinopsis picacea: the magpie inkcap fungus|
|Common Inkcap||Coprinopsis atramentaria||Coprinopsis atramentaria: the common inkcap|
|Snowy Inkcap||Coprinopsis nivea||Coprinopsis nivea: the snowy inkcap|
|Fairy Inkcap||Coprinellus disseminatus||Coprinellus disseminatus: the fairy inkcap|
|Pleated Inkcap||Parasola plicatilis||Parasola plicatilis: the pleated inkcap|
|Common Stump Brittlestem||Psathyrella piluliformis||Psathyrella piluliformis: the common stump brittlestem|
|Brown Mottlegill||Panaeolina foenisecci||Panaeolina foenisecci: the brown mottlegill|
|Garland Roundhead||Stropharia coronilla||Stropharia coronilla: the garland roundhead|
|Sulphur Tuft||Hypholoma fasciculare||Hypholoma fasciculare: the sulphur tuft fungus|
|Snakeskin Brownie||Hypholoma marginatum||Hypholoma marginatum: the snakeskin brownie fungus|
|Egghead Mottlegill||Panaeolus semiovatus||Panaeolus semiovatus: the egghead mottlegill|
|Petticoat Mottlegill||Panaeolus papilionaceus||Panaeolus papilionaceus:the petticoat mottlegill|
|Sheathed Woodtuft||Kuehneromyces mutabilis||Kuehneromyces mutabilis: the sheathed woodtuft fungus|
|Soapy Knight||Tricholoma saponaceum||Tricholoma saponaceum: the soapy knight|
|Frosty Funnel||Clytocybe phyllophila||Clytocibe pollyphila: the frosy funnel|
|Clouded Agaric||Clitocybe nebularis||Clitocybe nebularis: the clouded agaric|
|Fools Funnel||Clitocybe rivulosa||Clitocybe rivulosa: the fools funnel|
|Butter Cap||Collybia butyracea||Collybia butyracea: the butter cap fungus|
|Spotted Toughshank||Collybia maculata||Collybia maculata; the spotted toughshank|
|Deceiver||Laccaria laccata||Laccaria laccata: the deceiver|
|Amethyst Deceiver||Laccaria amethystea||Laccaria amethystea: the amethyst deceiver|
|Honey Fungus||Armillaria mellea||Armillaria mellea: the honey fungus|
|Cucumber Cap||Macrocystidia cucumis||Macrocystidia cucumis: the cucumber cap|
|Fairy Ring Champignon||Marasmius oreades||Marasmius oreades: the fairy ring champignon|
|Porcelain Fungus||Oudemansiella mucida||Oudemansiella mucida: the porcelain fungus|
|Field Blewit||Lepista saeva||Lepista saeva: the field blewit|
|Wood Blewit||Lepista nuda||Lepista nuda: the wood blewitt|
|Elm Leech||Hypsizgus ulmaris||Hypsizgus ulmaris: the elm leech fungus|
|Common Bonnet||Mycena galericulata||Mycena galericulata: the common bonnet fungus|
|Grooved Bonnet||Mycena polygramma||Mycena polygramma: the grooved bonnet|
|Bleeding Bonnet||Mycena sanguinolenta||Mycena sanguinolenta: the bleeding bonnet|
|Blusher||Amanita rubescens||Amanita rubescens: the blusher|
|Fungus (A excelsa)||Amanita excelsa||Amanita excelsa: said to be edible|
|Date Waxcap||Hygrocybe spadicea||Hygrocybe spadicea: the date waxcap fungus|
|Blackening Waxcap||Hygrocybe conica||Hygrocybe conica: the blackening waxcap fungus|
|Parrot Waxcap||Hygrocybe psittacina||Hygrocybe psittacina: the parrot waxcap|
|Meadow Waxcap||Hygrocybe pratensis||Hygrocybe pratensis; the meadow waxcap fungus|
|Grey Milk-cap||Lactarius vietus||Lactarius vietus: the grey milkcap fungus|
|Fragile Russula||Russula fragilis||Russula fragilis: the fragile russula|
|Sickener||Russula emetica||Russula emetica: the sickener|
|Humpback Brittlegill||Russula caerulea||Russula caerulea: the humpback brittlegill|
|Red-cracking Bolete||Xerocomus chrysenteron||Xerocomus chrysenteron: the red-cracking bolete|
|Cep||Boletus edulis||Boletus edulis: the penny bun|
|Bay Bolete||Boletus badius||Boletus badius: the bay bolete fungues|
|Lurid Bolete||Boletus luridus||Boletus luridus: the lurid boletes|
|Orange Birch Bolete||Leccinum versipelle||Leccinum versipelle: the orange birch bolete|
|Fungus (L cyaneobasileucum)||Leccinum cyaneobasileucum||Leccinum cyaneobasileucum: the blue bolete|
|Weeping Bolete||Suillus granulatus||Suillus granulatus: the weeping bolete|
This book is made up of the segments listed below. Click the segment title for information about specie within that segment.
The Amanita family includes the most famous fungus of all, the Fly Agaric. It also contains some of the most deadly poisonous of British fungi and they should be handled with extreme care (or not at all!).
Most toadstools have gills from where spores are released but the boletes species have pores instead. This gives a spongey, often yellow, look to the underside of the cap. Quite often the surface of the cap can be cracked.
|Bonnets and Mottlegills||
These species have caps that are shaped like little hats that sit on top of thin stems. They are usually fragile little fungi and can be very difficult to identify as many seem, at first sight anyway, the same as their cousins.
Some species growing on dead tree stumps especially occur in large clusters. They are often small fungi that have a shiny or greasy appearance on the cap. I have gathered roundheads, tufts, brownies and toughshanks together for identification purposes.
Inkcaps generally have one thing in common; as soon as the caps have developed they start to disintegrate into an ink-like liquid, hence the name ink cap. In doing this, the spores are washed in to the soil rather than being blown on the wind.
|Knights and Funnels||
The fungi known as knights are big and bold whereas funnels are, well, funnel shaped! These are among the larger toadstool type fungi that occur mainly amongst the leaf litter in woodlands. I have included chanterelle here as it is funnel shaped.
Mushrooms (agaricus fungi) are generally plain capped, pale in colour and often hove black gills. Quite often species of this family are found in meadows and grassland, frequently where there has been some form of agriculture in the past.
There are two main groups of russula, Milkcaps and Brittlegills; I have not seperated them here. Many species in this family exhibit a dip in the centre of the cap. Milkcaps exude a white milky substance if broken and russulas are often, but not always, a russet colour. A very difficult group to identify.
The tricholoma family of fungi are a very varied and complex collection of species. Some of the larger groups I have broken out in to other sections such as the knights and funnels, the bonnets and so on. Under this heading are some of the members of smaller species groups.
Waxcap fungi are to mycolgists what orchids are to botanists and raptors are to ornithologists! Waxcaps, as their name implies have a waxy finish to their caps and tend to have a conical shape, especially when first emerging.